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Hypoglycemia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

This may result in a variety of symptoms including clumsiness, trouble talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or death. A feeling of hunger, sweating, shakiness, and weakness may also be present. Symptoms typically come on quickly.[1]The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin, sulfonylureas, and biguanides.[2][3] Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual, or have drunk alcohol.[1] Other causes of hypoglycemia include kidney failure, certain tumors, liver disease, hypothyroidism, starvation, inborn error of metabolism, severe infections, reactive hypoglycemia, and a number of drugs including alcohol.[1][3] Low blood sugar may occur in babies who are otherwise healthy who have not eaten for a few hours.[4]The glucose level that defines hypoglycemia is variable.

In people with diabetes levels below 3. L (7. 0 mg/d. L) is diagnostic.[1] In adults without diabetes, symptoms related to low blood sugar, low blood sugar at the time of symptoms, and improvement when blood sugar is restored to normal confirm the diagnosis.[5] Otherwise a level below 2.

L (5. 0 mg/d. L) after not eating or following exercise may be used.[1] In newborns a level below 2. L (4. 0 mg/d. L) or less than 3. L (6. 0 mg/d. L) if symptoms are present indicates hypoglycemia.[4] Other tests that may be useful in determining the cause include insulin and C peptide levels in the blood.[3]Hyperglycemia, a high blood sugar, is the opposite condition. Among people with diabetes, prevention is by matching the foods eaten, with the amount of exercise, and the medications used. When people feel their blood sugar is low testing with a glucose monitor is recommended.

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Some people have few initial symptoms of low blood sugar and frequent routine testing in this group is recommended. Treatment of hypoglycemia is by eating foods high in simple sugars or taking dextrose. If a person is not able to take food by mouth, an injection of glucagon may help. The treatment of hypoglycemia unrelated to diabetes include treating the underlying problem as well and a healthy diet.[1] The term "hypoglycemia" is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to idiopathic postprandial syndrome, a controversial condition with similar symptoms that occur following eating but with normal blood sugar levels.[6][7]Signs and symptoms[edit]. Paramedics in Southern California attend a diabetic man who lost effective control of his vehicle due to low blood sugar and drove it over the curb.

Hypoglycemic symptoms and manifestations can be divided into those produced by the counterregulatory hormones (epinephrine/adrenaline and glucagon) triggered by the falling glucose, and the neuroglycopenic effects produced by the reduced brain sugar. Shakiness, anxiety, nervousness. Palpitations, tachycardia.

Free online maths games for kids. New 4Media Ps3 Video Converter License Code 2016 - Free Download Reviews 2016. Primary or Elementary, Key Stage 1, ages 5-7 years, Numeracy, Math help activities and teacher resources to use in the classroom or. Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels. This may result in a variety of symptoms. Low back pain fact sheet compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Balance bal·ance (bāl'əns) n. A weighing device, especially one consisting of a rigid beam horizontally suspended by a low-friction support at its center, with.

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Sweating, feeling of warmth (sympathetic muscarinic rather than adrenergic)Pallor, coldness, clamminess. Dilated pupils (mydriasis)Hunger, borborygmus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort. Headache. Central nervous system[edit]Abnormal thinking, impaired judgment. Nonspecific dysphoria, moodiness, depression, crying, exaggerated concerns.

Feeling of numbness, pins and needles (paresthesia)Negativism, irritability, belligerence, combativeness, rage. Personality change, emotional lability. Fatigue, weakness, apathy, lethargy, daydreaming, sleep. Confusion, memory loss, lightheadedness or dizziness, delirium.

Staring, glassy look, blurred vision, double vision. Flashes of light in the field of vision. Automatic behavior, also known as automatism. Difficulty speaking, slurred speech. Ataxia, incoordination, sometimes mistaken for drunkenness.

Focal or general motor deficit, paralysis, hemiparesis. Headache. Stupor, coma, abnormal breathing. Generalized or focal seizures. Not all of the above manifestations occur in every case of hypoglycemia. There is no consistent order to the appearance of the symptoms, if symptoms even occur.

Specific manifestations may also vary by age, by severity of the hypoglycemia and the speed of the decline. In young children, vomiting can sometimes accompany morning hypoglycemia with ketosis. In older children and adults, moderately severe hypoglycemia can resemble mania, mental illness, drug intoxication, or drunkenness.

In the elderly, hypoglycemia can produce focal stroke- like effects or a hard- to- define malaise. The symptoms of a single person may be similar from episode to episode, but are not necessarily so and may be influenced by the speed at which glucose levels are dropping, as well as previous incidents. In newborns, hypoglycemia can produce irritability, jitters, myoclonic jerks, cyanosis, respiratory distress, apneic episodes, sweating, hypothermia, somnolence, hypotonia, refusal to feed, and seizures or "spells." Hypoglycemia can resemble asphyxia, hypocalcemia, sepsis, or heart failure. In both young and old patients, the brain may habituate to low glucose levels, with a reduction of noticeable symptoms despite neuroglycopenic impairment. In insulin- dependent diabetic patients this phenomenon is termed hypoglycemia unawareness and is a significant clinical problem when improved glycemic control is attempted.

Another aspect of this phenomenon occurs in type I glycogenosis, when chronic hypoglycemia before diagnosis may be better tolerated than acute hypoglycemia after treatment is underway. Hypoglycemic symptoms can also occur when one is sleeping. Examples of symptoms during sleep can include damp bed sheets or clothes from perspiration. Having nightmares or the act of crying out can be a sign of hypoglycemia. Once the individual is awake they may feel tired, irritable, or confused and these may be signs of hypoglycemia as well.[8]In nearly all cases, hypoglycemia that is severe enough to cause seizures or unconsciousness can be reversed without obvious harm to the brain. Cases of death or permanent neurological damage occurring with a single episode have usually involved prolonged, untreated unconsciousness, interference with breathing, severe concurrent disease, or some other type of vulnerability. Nevertheless, brain damage or death has occasionally resulted from severe hypoglycemia.

Research in healthy adults shows that mental efficiency declines slightly but measurably as blood glucose falls below 3. M (6. 5 mg/d. L). Hormonal defense mechanisms (adrenaline and glucagon) are normally activated as it drops below a threshold level (about 5.

L (3. 0 m. M) for most people), producing the typical hypoglycemic symptoms of shakiness and dysphoria.[9]: 1. Obvious impairment may not occur until the glucose falls below 4.

L (2. 2 m. M), and many healthy people may occasionally have glucose levels below 6. Since the brain effects of hypoglycemia, termed neuroglycopenia, determine whether a given low glucose is a "problem" for that person, most doctors use the term hypoglycemia only when a moderately low glucose level is accompanied by symptoms or brain effects. Determining the presence of both parts of this definition is not always straightforward, as hypoglycemic symptoms and effects are vague and can be produced by other conditions; people with recurrently low glucose levels can lose their threshold symptoms so that severe neuroglycopenic impairment can occur without much warning, and many measurement methods (especially glucose meters) are imprecise at low levels. It may take longer to recover from severe hypoglycemia with unconsciousness or seizure even after restoration of normal blood glucose.

When a person has not been unconscious, failure of carbohydrate to reverse the symptoms in 1. When severe hypoglycemia has persisted in a hospitalized person, the amount of glucose required to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels becomes an important clue to the underlying etiology. Glucose requirements above 1. In this context this is referred to as the glucose infusion rate (GIR). Finally, the blood glucose response to glucagon given when the glucose is low can also help distinguish among various types of hypoglycemia. A rise of blood glucose by more than 3.

Long- term effects[edit]Significant hypoglycemia appears to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.[1. The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin, sulfonylureas, and biguanides.[2][3] Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual, or drunk alcohol.[1] Other causes of hypoglycemia include kidney failure, certain tumors, liver disease, hypothyroidism, starvation, inborn error of metabolism, severe infections, reactive hypoglycemia, and a number of drugs including alcohol.[1][3] Low blood sugar may occur in babies who are otherwise healthy who have not eaten for a few hours.[4]Serious illness[edit]Serious illness may result in low blood sugar.[1] Severe disease of nearly all major organ systems can cause hypoglycemia as a secondary problem. Hospitalized person, especially in intensive care units or those prevented from eating, can develope hypoglycemia from a variety of circumstances related to the care of their primary disease. Hypoglycemia in these circumstances is often multifactorial or caused by the healthcare. Once identified, these types of hypoglycemia are readily reversed and prevented, and the underlying disease becomes the primary problem. Hormone deficiency[edit]Not enough cortisol, such as in Addison's disease, not enough glucagon, or not enough epinephrine can result in low blood sugar.[1] This is a more common cause in children.[1]Pathophysiology[edit]Like most animal tissues, brain metabolism depends primarily on glucose for fuel in most circumstances.

A limited amount of glucose can be derived from glycogen stored in astrocytes, but it is consumed within minutes.